Reported speech rules, examples
When you report someone's words you can do it in 2 ways:
1. You can use direct speech with quotation marks.
Example: He said: I work in a bank.
2. You can use reported speech.
Example: He said he worked in a bank.
The tenses, word-order, pronouns may be different from those in the direct speech sentence.
Direct speech: Jake said: I bought some DVDs.
Reported speech: Jake said that he bought some DVDs.
Simple present tense usually changes to the simple past in reported speech.
Examples: Direct speech Reported speech / Indirect speech
He says, "We are in London for the first time."
He says (that) they are in London for the first time. Reported speech - Indirect speech
He says, "We were in London for the first time." Direct speech
He says (that) they were in London for the first time. Reported speech - Indirect speech
The simple past tense usually changes to the past perfect in reported speech.
Change of tenses
The tenses, word-order, pronouns may be different from those in the direct speech sentence. The Past Perfect Tense does not change in the Reported Speech.
|Direct speech||Reported speech|
|Ann said:||"I want ice-cream."||Ann said that she wanted ice-cream.|
|Simple Past||Simple Present||Simple Past|
|Reported speech 'to be'|
Questions - reported speech
"Do you like Jake?"
She asked me if/whether I liked Jake.
Questions with question words
Who is your
She asked me who my friend was.
Commands - reported speech
Sit down! - The teacher told them to sit down.
Drink a lot of tea! - He told us to drink a lot of tea.
Ann said that she wanted coke.
Ann said that she didn`t want coke.
Tom said that he was ill.
Tom said that he wasn't ill.
Change of pronouns, date and place words
- the change of tenses
- the change of pronouns
- the change of time and place words
|Direct speech||Reported speech - Indirect speech|
|Change of pronouns||
|Change of place and time words||
⇒ that day
⇒ that morning
⇒ the day before
⇒ the next day
⇒ the following week
⇒ the following month
Tests reported speech and exercises
Reported speech rules
Reported speech with explanations, examples and exercises. Change the following sentences into Reported speech and learn with English online exercises.
Free tutorial Reported speech. English Reported speech exercises. English grammar easy to learn.
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